We all know that assessments are an important part of any
learning process and curriculum. Not only do they provide motivation and a
framework for students to master content and opportunities for them to
demonstrate new skills, they also can be used to inform pedagogical practices
as teachers collect data that can lead to more focused and differentiated
instruction. This information, in turn, allows educators to better meet the
needs of particular students. But the very best exams are structured to do even
more: they help students learn by posing insightful questions that encourage
students to connect dots and develop original ideas.
So what are the necessary ingredients for a great assessment? There are, of course, many different formats and approaches that teachers use to evaluate the learning of their students. But I believe they all should measure a full array of knowledge and critical thinking. Exams should also ensure horizontal alignment, such as the content that students are being taught, with the vertical alignment, that includes grade-level expectations through accumulating and then evaluating summative data.
Perhaps most importantly, quality assessments should be
highly accurate in their measurement of key learning objectives without
duplicating sets of knowledge. Finally, assessments should meet high standards
of fairness, reliability, and validity. Only in this way can teachers evaluate
the range of topics covered in any given class, including core content, problem
solving individually and collaboratively, critical thinking, and even
metacognition. And in doing so, teachers may create and offer exams that not
only reflect what has been learned, but also encourage learning even while
students are in the process of being assessed.
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